What is a Cleft Chin?

Simple definition:

The terms cleft chin, chin cleft, dimple chin, or chin dimple, refer to a dimple on the chin.

Fancy definition:

Specifically, the chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that resulted from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. For other individuals, it can develop over time, often because one half of the jaw is longer than the other, leading to facial asymmetry.
A cleft chin is an inherited trait in humans, where the recessive gene causes the cleft chin, while the dominant presents without a cleft. However, it is also a classic example for variable penetrance with environmental factors or a modifier gene possibly affecting the phenotypical expression of the actual genotype. Cleft chins are common among people originating from Europe, the Middle East and India.
Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chin#Cleft_chin

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What is a Widow’s Peak?

Simple definition:

V-shaped growth of hair toward the center of the forehead, especially one left by a receding hairline in a man.

Fancy definition:

A widow’s peak is a V-shaped point in the hairline in the center of the forehead. Hair growth on the forehead is suppressed in a bilateral pair of periorbital fields. Without a widow’s peak, these fields join in the middle of the forehead so as to give a hairline that runs straight across. A widow’s peak results when the point of intersection on the forehead of the upper perimeters of these fields is lower than usual.

Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Widow%27s_peak

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What are Dimples?

Simple definition:

A dimple is a small natural indentation in the flesh on a part of the human body, most notably in the cheek or on the chin.

Fancy definition:

Dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle known as zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples. This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimple

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What are Freckles?

Simple definition:

Freckles are small brown spots on your skin, often in areas that get sun exposure. Freckles typically don’t raise off the skin. In most cases, freckles are harmless.

Fancy definition:

The presence of freckles is related to rare alleles of the MC1R gene, though it does not differentiate whether an individual will have freckles if they have one or even two copies of this gene. Also, individuals with no copies of the MC1R do sometimes display freckles. Even so, individuals with a high number of freckling sites have one or more of variants of the MC1R gene. Of the variants of the MC1R gene Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, and Asp294His are the most common in the freckled subjects. The MC1R gene is also associated with red hair more strongly than with freckles. Most red-haired individuals have two variants of the MC1R gene and almost all have one. The variants that cause red hair are the same that cause freckling. Freckling can also be found in areas, such as Japan, where red hair is not seen. These individuals have the variant Val92Met which is also found in Caucasians, although it has minimal effects on their pigmentation. The R162Q allele has a disputed involvement in freckling.
The variants of the MC1R gene that are linked with freckles started to emerge in the human genotype when humans started to leave Africa. The variant Val92Met arose somewhere between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, long enough for this gene to be carried by humans into central Asia. Arg160Trp is estimated to have arisen around 80,000 years ago while Arg151Cys and Asp294His have been estimated to arise around 30,000 years ago. The wide variation of the MC1R gene exists in people of European descent because of the lack of strong environmental pressures on the gene. The original allele of MC1R coded for dark skin with a high melanin content in the cells. The high melanin content is protective in areas of high UV light exposure. The need was less as humans moved into higher latitudes where incoming sunlight has lower UV light content. The adaptation of lighter skin is needed so that individuals in higher latitudes can still absorb enough UV for the production of vitamin D. Freckled individuals tend to tan less and have very light skin, which would have helped the individuals that expressed these genes absorb vitamin D.

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Eye color

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One of the most prevalent aspects of human genes is that they can be inherited. Whether you are tall or have red hair, you have these genes because they were transmitted from your parents to you. Even eye color can be defined by genetics. Depending on your parent’s eye color, how dominant that eye color is, and the variation of how other genes interact plays a huge role in what eye color you are born with. For example, a mother with green eyes and a father with light brown eyes can have a child with dark brown. This shows that eye color genes are established because of variations of genes. The child has dark brown eyes because of a dominant eye color, which is brown. The color of the eyes is different, however, because of the genetic combinations from parents.

eye-color-genes

For instance, a mother with blue eyes and a father with blue eyes will have a baby with blue eyes; but it should be noted that the blue color of the child’s eyes won’t be exactly the same as their parents. The color will be slightly different because of different genetic variants. In regards to parents having children with a different eye color from them, that is a completely different story. While a parent with blue eyes and a parent with brown eyes can have a baby with a slight variation or different eye color than them, it is very rare for parents with the same eye color to have a child with a different eye color than them. Parents that both have green eyes will most likely never have a child with brown eyes; they will either be blue or green, with a slight variation in color. By knowing your parent’s eye colors, it is easier to know why your eyes are the color that they are.
Would you like more information about eye color genes or are you interested in relationship DNA testing? Call Face IT DNA Technology LLC today at 833-322-3362. We are here to provide you with vital information and answer any questions that you might have.

What is a Free Earlobe?

Simple definition:

Free Earlobes: Free earlobes are the most common form of lobes found. This type of earlobe is often large and hangs below the point of attachment to the head.

Attached Earlobes: These types of earlobes are not rare but are also not commonly found. Earlobes of such type are small in size and do not have hangs.

Fancy definition:

Earlobes average about 2 centimeters long and elongate slightly with age. Although the “free” vs. “attached” appearance of earlobes is often presented as an example of a simple “one gene – two alleles” Mendelian trait in humans, earlobes do not all fall neatly into either category; there is a continuous range from one extreme to the other, suggesting the influence of several genes.

Curtesy of Wikipedia & News Medical Life Sciences
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earlobe
https://www.news-medical.net/health/Genetics-of-Earlobes.aspx

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What are Connected Eyebrows?

Simple definition:

A unibrow or connected eyebrow is a single eyebrow created when the two eyebrows meet in the middle above the bridge of the nose.

Fancy definition:

The hair above the bridge of the nose is usually of the same color and thickness as the eyebrows, giving the appearance that they converge to form one uninterrupted line of hair.
The unibrow is a recessive genetic trait. It is associated with the PAX3 gene.

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Frequency of Blood Types in U.S.

  • O Positive – 38%
  • O Negative – 7%
  • A Positive – 34%
  • A Negative – 6%
  • B Positive – 9%
  • AB Positive – 3%
  • AB Negative – 1%
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Compatibility of Blood Types

ABO type blood gets determined due to the absence or presence of A or B antigens on red blood cells. For example, someone with an A type blood possesses only the A antigen on their cells. B blood types have B antigens, while AB has both and O has neither. A person develops antibodies for the antigens they lack by the time they reach 6 months of age. This means that someone with an A blood type will develop antibodies against B blood types, and cannot receive transfusions of B type blood. Because of this, all facilities which offer blood transfusions must keep stock of all types.

parent-child-blood

Inheritance and Blood

Blood Type

Everyone has either A, B, AB, or O type blood. A person’s type of blood also gets accompanied with an Rh factor of positive or negative. As with physical traits, parental genetics determines both blood type and Rh factor. Each parents donates one of two blood genes to the child. For example, if one parent donates an O gene, and the other donates an A gene, the A wins out to provide the child with A type blood. O type blood only becomes possible when both parents provide an O gene.

  • AA = A Blood Type
  • BB = B Blood Type
  • OO = O Blood Type
  • AO = A Blood Type
  • BO = B Blood Type
  • AB = AB Blood Type
parent-child-blood
Rh Factor

The Rh factor of blood is merely a protein located on the outer layer of red blood cells. Red blood cells that have this protein become positive, while those that lack it become negative. As with blood types themselves, a person inherits their Rh factor from the parents. When paired together, the positive gene dominates the negative.

  • Neg/Neg = Negative Rh
  • Neg/Pos = Positive Rh
  • Pos/Pos = Positive Rh
negative positive chart
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What is a Cleft Chin?

Simple definition:
The terms cleft chin, chin cleft, dimple chin, or chin dimple, refer to a dimple on the chin.

Fancy definition:
Specifically, the chin fissure follows the fissure in the lower jaw bone that resulted from the incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the jaw bone, or muscle, during the embryonal and fetal development. For other individuals, it can develop over time, often because one half of the jaw is longer than the other, leading to facial asymmetry.
A cleft chin is an inherited trait in humans, where the recessive gene causes the cleft chin, while the dominant presents without a cleft. However, it is also a classic example for variable penetrance with environmental factors or a modifier gene possibly affecting the phenotypical expression of the actual genotype. Cleft chins are common among people originating from Europe, the Middle East and India.
Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chin#Cleft_chin

What is a Widow’s Peak?

Simple definition:

V-shaped growth of hair toward the center of the forehead, especially one left by a receding hairline in a man.

Fancy definition:
A widow’s peak is a V-shaped point in the hairline in the center of the forehead. Hair growth on the forehead is suppressed in a bilateral pair of periorbital fields. Without a widow’s peak, these fields join in the middle of the forehead so as to give a hairline that runs straight across. A widow’s peak results when the point of intersection on the forehead of the upper perimeters of these fields is lower than usual.

Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Widow%27s_peak

What are Dimples?

Simple definition:
A dimple is a small natural indentation in the flesh on a part of the human body, most notably in the cheek or on the chin.

Fancy definition:
Dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle known as zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples. This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimple

What are Freckles?

Simple definition:
Freckles are small brown spots on your skin, often in areas that get sun exposure. Freckles typically don’t raise off the skin. In most cases, freckles are harmless.

Fancy definition:
The presence of freckles is related to rare alleles of the MC1R gene, though it does not differentiate whether an individual will have freckles if they have one or even two copies of this gene. Also, individuals with no copies of the MC1R do sometimes display freckles. Even so, individuals with a high number of freckling sites have one or more of variants of the MC1R gene. Of the variants of the MC1R gene Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, and Asp294His are the most common in the freckled subjects. The MC1R gene is also associated with red hair more strongly than with freckles. Most red-haired individuals have two variants of the MC1R gene and almost all have one. The variants that cause red hair are the same that cause freckling. Freckling can also be found in areas, such as Japan, where red hair is not seen. These individuals have the variant Val92Met which is also found in Caucasians, although it has minimal effects on their pigmentation. The R162Q allele has a disputed involvement in freckling.
The variants of the MC1R gene that are linked with freckles started to emerge in the human genotype when humans started to leave Africa. The variant Val92Met arose somewhere between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, long enough for this gene to be carried by humans into central Asia. Arg160Trp is estimated to have arisen around 80,000 years ago while Arg151Cys and Asp294His have been estimated to arise around 30,000 years ago. The wide variation of the MC1R gene exists in people of European descent because of the lack of strong environmental pressures on the gene. The original allele of MC1R coded for dark skin with a high melanin content in the cells. The high melanin content is protective in areas of high UV light exposure. The need was less as humans moved into higher latitudes where incoming sunlight has lower UV light content. The adaptation of lighter skin is needed so that individuals in higher latitudes can still absorb enough UV for the production of vitamin D. Freckled individuals tend to tan less and have very light skin, which would have helped the individuals that expressed these genes absorb vitamin D.

Curtesy of Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freckle

What is a Free Earlobe?

Simple definition:
Free Earlobes: Free earlobes are the most common form of lobes found. This type of earlobe is often large and hangs below the point of attachment to the head.
Attached Earlobes: These types of earlobes are not rare but are also not commonly found. Earlobes of such type are small in size and do not have hangs.

Fancy definition:
Earlobes average about 2 centimeters long and elongate slightly with age. Although the “free” vs. “attached” appearance of earlobes is often presented as an example of a simple “one gene – two alleles” Mendelian trait in humans, earlobes do not all fall neatly into either category; there is a continuous range from one extreme to the other, suggesting the influence of several genes.

Curtesy of Wikipedia & News Medical Life Sciences
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earlobe
https://www.news-medical.net/health/Genetics-of-Earlobes.aspx

What are Connected Eyebrows?

Simple definition:
A unibrow or connected eyebrow is a single eyebrow created when the two eyebrows meet in the middle above the bridge of the nose.

Fancy definition:
The hair above the bridge of the nose is usually of the same color and thickness as the eyebrows, giving the appearance that they converge to form one uninterrupted line of hair.
The unibrow is a recessive genetic trait. It is associated with the PAX3 gene.

How can I find out my blood type?

Do eyes matter when analyzing DNA Face Matching data?

Your eye color comes from pigmentation of your iris. The iris of the eye is that section that surrounds the small black hole in the center of the eye known as the pupil. Most of the time eye color is categorized as blue, green/hazel, or brown. Brown is the most frequent eye color worldwide. Lighter eye colors, such as blue and green, are found almost exclusively among people of European decent.
Eye color is determined by variations in an individual’s genes. Eye color is important when conducting DNA Face Matching because certain eye colors cannot produce other eye colors. The PRO Package takes into consideration the eye color of an individual. When conducting an office visit DNA Paternity test, eye color is also a contributing factor. In fact, there are several DNA markers used to determine paternity. Eye color is directly related to the amount and quality of melanin in the front layers of the iris. People with brown eyes have a large amount of melanin in the iris, while people with blue eyes have much less of this pigment.
A particular region on chromosome 15 plays a major role in eye color. Within this region, there are two genes located very close together: OCA2 and HERC2. The protein produced from the OCA2 gene, known as the P protein, is involved in the maturation of melanosomes, which are cellular structures that produce and store melanin. The P protein therefore plays a crucial role in the amount and quality of melanin that is present in the iris. Several common variations (polymorphisms) in the OCA2 gene reduce the amount of functional P protein that is produced. Less P protein means that less melanin is present in the iris, leading to blue eyes instead of brown in people with a polymorphism in this gene.
A region of the nearby HERC2 gene known as intron 86 contains a segment of DNA that controls the activity (expression) of the OCA2 gene, turning it on or off as needed. At least one polymorphism in this area of the HERC2 gene has been shown to reduce the expression of OCA2, which leads to less melanin in the iris and lighter-colored eyes.
Several other genes play smaller roles in determining eye color. Some of these genes are also involved in skin and hair coloring. Genes with reported roles in eye color include ASIP, IRF4, SLC24A4, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, and TYRP1. The effects of these genes likely combine with those of OCA2 and HERC2 to produce a continuum of eye colors in different people.
While a child’s eye color can often be predicted by the eye colors of his or her parents and other relatives, genetic variations sometimes produce unexpected results.

Our mobile app platform and online service allows you to upload the alleged fathers photo and child’s photo to compare the two faces and give you a relative suggestion of whether or not to two are related. DNA Face Matching only offers a hypothesis or suggestion of possible relationship and is occasionally incorrect. This can be conducted with a father, child, aunt, uncle, grandparent, sibling or cousin.